Monsoon and Agriculture

In India, Karnataka is the second largest rainfall area. Food production is mainly dependent on the southwest monsoon. Some of the districts like Bengaluru, Kolar and Tumkur are gaining in their mean annual rainfall. But some other district with heavy rainfall regions such as Kodagu, Chikmangalore and South Canara has less mean annual rainfall regions. For the rainfall, eastern parts of the state are more dependent on the Northeast monsoon than terminal rains of the southwest monsoon. Hence crop growing period is changing due to individual crop areas. The delaying of the sowing season is due to the shifting of July rains to August, and September peak rainfall is shifting to October. The reduction in crop yields is due to less rainfall during the summer monsoon [2].

  • The southwest monsoon season dominates the Indian climate. During the four months (June- September), about 80% of the rainfall in the country caused by spatial and temporary variations. Due to the heavy rain, the scarcity of water during the non-monsoon season has occurred. Therefore, agriculture has a significant role in both the economy and livelihood [1].
  • In 2020, Central India received 104% higher rainfall than the average rainfall. In some regions, the northwest region received 31%, Eastern & northeastern India has 6% higher than average [1].
  • The Southern peninsula received 4% lower rainfall than average [1].
  • Except for Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan and the northeastern states, other has usual or excess rainfall [1].
  • The Normalized Deviation Vegetation Index (NDVI) indicates the vegetation condition or crop health. During the Kharif season, there was good rainfall in June and July in most of the state has increased NDVI compared to that of 2019 except for the three States such as Bihar, Assam and West Bengal. Bihar and Assam have lower NDVI because of the impact of floods [1].

According to Satellite data, NDVI, rainfall and crop statics, the result shows that crop area and crop condition were much during the post-lockdown period compared to 2019. In 2020, due to better rainfall situations and government policy providing relaxation for agricultural activities, there is an increase in crop area and crop enhancement. According to NDVI, February, May and July of 2020 represent Rabi, Zaid and Kharif seasons. During the Kharif season, the major crops are rice, cotton, sugarcane, groundnut, soybean, pigeon pea and coarse cereals. During Rabi season, wheat, rapeseed & mustard, gram, sorghum and rice are the main crops. Crops such as rice, pulses and coarse cereals are grown in the Zaid season. The Central bank announced the moratorium on agricultural loans. In addition to these government initiatives, the March-May period for the Zaid crop and June & July for the Kharif crop, there was a better amount of rainfall. The pre-monsoon period from March to May has 20% excess rainfall and the monsoon period from June to September has 9% excess rainfall [1].



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